Reaching out across the Web .. ...分享 http://www.blog.sciencetimes.com.cn/u/zuojun Zuojun Yu, physical oceanographer, freelance English editor

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什么是 抄袭?

已有 1401 次阅读 2021-8-21 05:53 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:论文交流


最近一阵子的微信流行词 包括“抄袭”。对许多新闻都感兴趣的我,自然会关注,尤其是因为我是“搞文字”的。(中文的“搞”非常好用,和英文的“get”有一比。)

我不记得在国内读大学、硕士的时候,老师有没有强调过“不能抄袭”。但是,我知道小时候做家庭作业,是“不可以抄同学的”。(还有,考试不能作弊。呵呵。)我也知道美国中学严打抄袭。(这不等于说 美国大学生就不抄袭了。)

有一位姓方的,“打假”许多年了。我一直不喜欢他的“文笔”。但是,抄袭这件事,是黑字(图)留在白纸上。一旦“事发”,应该容易看出谁对谁错。这几天,方又激动了。而这次“被打”的,是非常得人心的医生。我能做的,就是“在朋友圈上沉默”。但是,有一些私下交流。我发现,90%的微信朋友,“挺张”。好像一个好人,哪怕有错,也不是他的错。我有点晕。

Dr Fauci在美国疫情开始的时候,上电视台呼吁老百姓“不要戴口罩”。后来,后来,他在电视台上认错了。人无完人。(还是 “美国人无完人“?)

 

下面,转发一篇关于4种抄袭的(带货)文章。

4 Types Of Plagiarism And How To Avoid

https://copyleaks.com/blog/types-of-plagiarism

Direct Plagiarism (“耿直”型):

Most commonly, the crime of plagiarism involves adopting parts from the writing of another writer without proper mention of the source. Often the person copying from the text does not change even a single word. The plagiarist can also change parts of sentences or replace some of the words with his/her own. However, it also comes under the crime of plagiarism. 

Among the different forms of plagiarism, direct plagiarism is the most harmful one. When the plagiarist copies and paste the text from someone else’s work and neglects to cite the source or remove quotation marks, then it is direct plagiarism. 

The identical copying or cloning of a text is a severe offense. This duplicate content falls under the category of deliberately plagiarised content. It is unethical, and the writer of the original content can take disciplinary actions against the plagiarist.

Mosaic Plagiarism (“碎片”型)

There is another type of plagiarism which is unintentional. In this case, the plagiarist may have mentioned the source of the content he has referred to. But, if he/she does not acknowledge the quoted part or put them under the quotation marks correctly, then the writer commits the crime of plagiarism. 

Whether intended or unintended, plagiarism is a serious crime as it ensures writing to be the property of a writer.

It is essential to refer to certain source materials to enrich writing. If a writer uses the internet as a source, he must know what not to do, so that he can avoid plagiarism. The most important thing for it is to properly mention the source of the work he has referred to. 

If he/she has used word by word, then he should use quotation marks. A writer must be careful about mosaic plagiarism. 

This type of plagiarism occurs when the writer borrows phrases or even parts from a particular source material without using quotation marks or substitutes some of the words from the content without changing the original structure of the source. 

Unintentionally paraphrasing someone else’s work without proper also leads to mosaic plagiarism. Sometimes, the plagiarists do “patch-writing” by paraphrasing certain parts and then copy and paste the text or parts from it. It is another form of mosaic plagiarism. 

Self-Plagiarism (“自己玩”型):

Self-plagiarism is one of the common types of plagiarism, where high school students copy and paste part of their previously submitted academic paper. If the student submits the same paper for two different class projects without asking the concerned teacher, then that is considered as self-plagiarism. 

Though self-plagiarism does not often end with serious legal action, that can affect the presentation for academic papers, research papers.

Accidental Plagiarism (“稀里糊涂”型):

Another common form of plagiarism involves accidental plagiarism. When the plagiarist misquotes the phrases or parts of the text he/she has taken from the source material or does not cite the source even or adequately or cites a wrong source, they that is considered as plagiarism. 

For incorrect authorship, even though the name of the work gets cited, the original writer can take disciplinary actions against the plagiarist, even though accidental plagiarism in no way intended.

How to Use Online Plagiarism Checker Tools?

(带货?我就不参与了。)




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